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Risk Factor. Karis Walsh. A Symptom of Magic. Alpha Billionaire Seeking Bride 3. Mac Flynn. The Promise of Touch. Steven Mohan. It was their opinion that the Boeing move represented a tacit admission by the Air Force of the vulnerability of Alaska and the northwest to Soviet attack. During hearings before the House Armed Services Committee on the B program, Navy leaders also questioned the Air Force's lack of expenditures on air defense.
Finally, with President Truman's announcement on September 22, , of a recent Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb, public interest in air defense became rampant. Money was made available in the FY budget to start air defense construction. In addition, Congress granted the Air Force authority to transfer money from other projects to expedite building the permanent network.
On December 2, , the Air Force directed the Army Corps of Engineers to proceed with construction of the first twenty-four radar sites on Saville's seventy-five-site list.
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Areas covered by these sites included northeastern, midwestern, and western metropolitan regions, and Atomic Energy Commission sites in Washington and New Mexico. Many of these locations already had temporary radars operating as part of the Lashup system. By mid, forty-four Lashup installations already were operating around the strategically important areas.
Once the permanent network stations became operational, the Lashup stations would be retired. Also in , other steps were taken to improve the nation's air warning capabilities. To complete this effort, the United States cooperated in constructing, equipping, and operating some of these stations on the northern side of the US-Canadian border as well as those on the southern side.
This string of stations straddling the border became known as the "Pinetree Line. As a result of this technological improvement, the GOC was deactivated on January 31, On June 25, , North Korea launched an invasion of South Korea, drawing the United States into a war that would last for three years. Believing that the North Korean attack could represent the first phase of a Soviet-inspired general war, the Joint Chiefs of Staff ordered Air Force air defense forces to a special alert status.
In the process of placing forces on heightened alert, the Air Force uncovered major weaknesses in the coordination of defensive units to defend the nation's airspace.
As a result, an air defense command and control structure began to develop and Air Defense Identification Zones ADIZ were staked out along the nation's frontiers. With the establishment of ADIZ, unidentified aircraft approaching North American airspace would be interrogated by radio.
If the radio interrogation failed to identify the aircraft, the Air Force launched interceptor aircraft to identify the intruder visually. In addition, the Air Force received Army cooperation. The commander of the Army's Antiaircraft Artillery Command allowed the Air Force to take operational control of the gun batteries as part of a coordinated defense in the event of attack. On July 11, , the Secretary of the Air Force requested approval from the Secretary of Defense to expedite construction of the second segment of twenty-eight stations for the permanent network.
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Most of these stations provided additional coverage to eastern, mid-western, and western regions of the country. The remaining twenty-three permanent network sites were approved for construction later in This promise proved impossible to keep. Lack of coordination between various Air Force commands and the Army Corps of Engineers, funding problems, manpower shortages, building material and spare part shortages, as well as a strike at General Electric's radar fabrication plant all slowed progress.
By the end of December , the completion date for the permanent network had been set back six months. As construction of the permanent network proceeded, Congressional concerns about air defense prompted a reorganization of the Air Force.
In the wake of Communist China's intervention in Korea, Congress approved President Truman's request for supplemental funds that included appropriations for a mobile radar network to supplement the permanent network. ADC planned to have these radars operating the following July. The permanent sites were designated P-sites and the mobile sites were designated M-sites. In January , ADC decided to position some of the mobile radars in conjunction with permanent sites to form a double perimeter that these mobile sites would remain in the same location for the long term, ADC directed the Army Corps of Engineers to build permanent support facilities at each site.
As with the permanent network, mobile radar deployment was slowed due to procurement problems. As nearly all stations of the permanent network reached operational status, the Air Force approved the second phase of the mobile radar program on October 18, These stations were designated as second mobile or SM-sites.
Meanwhile, the Navy was asked to provide radar picket ships to cover coastal approaches and the Air Force began to purchase EC Lockheed Constellation planes to provide additional radar coverage. Even with a fully capable radar system serving as the foundation of an air defense infrastructure, the Air Force claimed the United States could stop only thirty percent of an attack, at best. However, in , Dr. George E Valley, Jr. The Valley Committee recommended solutions that included establishing an air defense laboratory at MIT. This laboratory would employ new technologies to improve this percentage rate.
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The Air Force expressed interest in establishing such a laboratory. However, resistance existed at MIT by faculty who objected to the university's continuing support of military research and development. By establishing a laboratory dedicated to air defense, MIT took on a project with a budget twice that of its undergraduate teaching program.
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In partnership with the Air Force, Cambridge Research Laboratory, and IBM, the Lincoln Laboratory immediately began work to modify a Whirlwind computer that was being developed for the Navy's use in performing air defense command and control functions. In , Whirlwind II was first tested by placing the computer at a control center in Cambridge to receive data from a long-range and several short-range radars set up on Cape Cod.
Tests proved promising, but years of development still lay ahead. The key breakthrough was the development of magnetic-core memory that vastly improved the computer's reliability. When the previous electrostatic-storage-tube memory was replaced by magnetic-core memory, operating speed doubled and input speed quadrupled. More significantly, maintenance time for the core memory dropped from four hours per day to two hours per week. On April 16, , after receiving reports from Alaska and Maine of unidentified incoming aircraft, ADC Headquarters issued an air defense readiness alert that caused hundreds of pilots to scramble to their planes and gun crews to man their antiaircraft guns.
The threat was later determined to be false. Air defense planners were forced to acknowledge limited capability to evaluate threats and respond. Telephone and teletype communications were too slow to keep an air defense commander cognizant of an evolving air battle. In the wake of the false alert, defense planners decided to reevaluate the emerging air defense system.
Twenty scientists and engineers, along with several consultants, considered current and future threats, such as Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles ICBMs , to the United States.
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Regarding the current threat, the group concluded that early warning was critical for a successful defense. They further concluded that automation of command and control through the introduction of computers, such as Whirlwind II, would give air defense commanders valuable minutes to properly deploy interceptor aircraft. The debate was internal. Neither Congress nor the American people were aware of the proposals being discussed. After reevaluating Soviet atomic bomb and bomber production rates, NSC preparers identified as a period of maximum danger.
Facing this imminent Soviet threat, defense planners considered an effective air defense warning system to be essential. However, newly elected President Dwight D Eisenhower desired a reduction in defense spending and a change of priorities. The new administration no longer considered to be a period of maximum danger.
While the Kelly Committee reviewed Summer Study Group recommendations, the American people became aware of the debate through congressional testimony and press coverage.